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Ice Throw Risk Assessments

Boku fig01Variables, Margins and Their Impact
 
The International Energy Agency’s Wind Technology Collaboration Programme Task 19 ‘International Recommendations for Ice Fall and Ice Throw Risk Assessments’, published in October 2018, gives a comprehensive overview of the necessary parts of a risk assessment and will hopefully form the basis for a future standard. Although it was obviously created with great care, the variables involved still leave considerable leeway for the results.
 
By Markus Drapalik, Institute of Safety and Risk Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna

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Lifetime Monitoring in Turbine Towers

Woelfel Figure 1Load Monitoring and Lifetime Assessment of Wind Turbine Structures
 
A wind turbine is one of the industrial structures with the highest vibration loads within its lifetime. It has to withstand up to 250 million load cycles within approximately 20 years. The vibration loads of wind turbines vary considerably depending on the location and operational mode of the wind turbine. Even two wind turbines in the same wind farm may differ significantly in their vibration loads. In the design phase, these loads can only roughly be determined, leading to potential reserves of a turbine’s lifetime during operation. Therefore, the structural monitoring of turbine towers is an essential part of controlling the lifetime of a wind turbine. In current operations on-site, the use of the retrofit solution SHM.Tower reveals that considerable reserves exist, allowing lifetime extension of turbine towers. Furthermore, lifetime-driven operation of wind turbines can be realised by using SHM.Tower, which is energy self-sufficient.
 
By Dr.-Ing. Carsten Ebert, Dr.-Ing. Manuel Eckstein, Dr.-Ing. Georg C Enss and Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Wölfel, Wölfel Wind Systems, Germany

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Reaching Higher Hub Heights With the Hybrid Tower

Max Bogl fig 1Combining Precast Concrete Parts and Steel Elements
Wind turbine performance is constantly improving. With this trend comes ever higher hub heights – a development that will also continue in the coming years. As turbine performance increases, political and economic demands regarding the profitability of wind turbines are likewise increasing. Turbines with capacities above 4MW will become the norm even for onshore sites. To effectively meet these challenges, innovative solutions from manufacturers are needed. Tower concepts such as the hybrid tower, which combines precast concrete parts and steel elements, are opening up new technical possibilities.
 
By Jürgen Joos, Chief Financial Officer, Max Bögl Wind, Germany

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Dynamic Cables for Floating Offshore Wind

ORE fig 1 newInvestigating the Impacts of Dynamic Mechanical Stresses on Fatigue Life of Dynamic Cables
Floating platform wind turbines will require cables to run through the water column from their platform base at the water surface to the touchdown point on the seabed. This trajectory exposes the cable to dynamic environmental forces, such as waves and currents. The Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult (ORE Catapult) and the Industrial Doctoral Centre for Offshore Renewable Energy (IDCORE) have been investigating the impact of this dynamic marine environment on a dynamic cable’s fatigue life, with the aim of reducing uncertainty and improving the reliability of dynamic cables. The aim of this project is to allow more effective planned maintenance offshore through the prediction of a failure of a dynamic cable.
 
By David Young, IDCORE and ORE Catapult, and Lars Johanning, University of Exeter, UK

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Evolution of Wind Resources Over the Last 30 to 45 Years

Variability Analyses and Considerations About Uncertainty for Long-Term Prediction
Eoltech Image1The evolution of long-term wind resources is a key issue in the wind industry, especially in the context of energy yield assessments. Thus, analysing the evolution of the long-term wind trends in the past should allow a better appreciation of their variability and potentially the risk of experiencing periods with low wind resources in the future.
 
By Marion Jude, Eoltech, France

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Scaling Up Offshore Turbine Platforms

Ingeteam new optimal power conversion achitecture offshoreSupply Chain Holistic Approach to Offshore Wind Levelised Cost of Electricity Competitiveness
Zero-subsidy offshore wind projects awarded in Germany and the Netherlands in 2018 have raised expectations worldwide. However, although these are significant competitiveness milestones, they are still bound to the particular market characteristics that made them possible.
 
Javier San Miguel Armendariz, Global Sales Director Wind Energy, Ingeteam, Spain

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What To Do With the Ageing German Wind Fleet?

Hannover figure 1The Optimal Choice Between Continued Operation, Repowering and Decommissioning
More and more players in the German wind energy sector are concerned with the question of how to deal with the ageing German wind fleet, as around 5,200 turbines will simultaneously reach the end of the feed-in-tariff funding period of the Renewable Energy Sources Act for the first time at the end of 2020. Around 8,000 wind turbines will follow by the end of 2025, as shown in Figure 1. Operators of affected wind turbines will then have the choice between (I) continuing to operate the old turbine within the framework of direct marketing on the European Power Exchange, (II) repowering the old turbine by a new and more efficient wind turbine at plant-specific feed-in premium levels tendered in the German renewable energy auctions or (III) decommissioning the respective plant.
 
By Jan-Hendrik Piel and Martin Westbomke, Germany

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