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Offshore Wind Farm Layout Strategies

Bryce 1Investigating New Designs Through Wake Loss and Cable Topology Optimisation
Offshore wind energy is an emerging technology that is becoming increasingly viable as technical and scientific improvements drive down the levelised cost of electricity making it more competitive with onshore wind technology and other forms of electricity generation.
 
By Bryce Wade, Canada

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Offshore Wind Turbines with Teetering Hinge

Seawind figure 1A New Technology Developed and Optimised for Offshore Use
This article focuses on the main characteristics of two-bladed teetering hinged turbines on top of floating platforms. It highlights how the teetering hinge positively affects fatigue and loads caused by wind–wave interaction and summarises the cost-effective technological choices for the system features and installation method.
 
By Silvestro Caruso, Chief Technical Officer, Seawind Ocean Technology, The Netherlands

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PPA Financing Closes the Gap Between Project Development and Energy Markets

Spiesheim wind farm developed by juwiWhat Will Come After the Germany Renewable Energy Sources Act?
In many places, operators and investors in Germany are asking, ‘What will come after the EEG (Renewable Energy Sources Act)?’ This means the time after the 20-year period with fixed feed-in tariffs. In contrast, in many countries around the globe there are no fixed feed-in rates governed by law at all – investors need to find offtakers for their eco-power from the first kilowatt-hour onward. This is where power purchase agreements (PPAs) come into place. On the other hand, such PPA structures are often also supported by tax or financing benefits or green quotas. Thus, what kind of prospects do PPAs offer for the German energy market?
 
Björn Broda, Head of Corporate Strategy, Communications & Public Affairs Department, juwi, Germany

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Onshore Foundations

CTE Image 1Engineering Approach to Designing New Solutions for Foundations
With the increase in average turbine size witnessed by the global wind industry over the years, foundations have also become enormous. Therefore, innovation and expertise are crucial to remain competitive in an industry where optimisation is essential in order to reduce the costs associated with foundations.
 
By Alexander Martin, CEO, CTE Wind, France

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The PERIMA Project

Unipa Fig 01A Telescopic Wind Tower With Reduced Environmental Impact
A prototype of a telescopic pole for wind energy production with low environmental impact and its lifting system for a 60–250kW turbine and a height of 30 metres have been designed and manufactured. A telescopic tower, which is raised and lowered by automation or by remote control, allows differentiation of the presence of the generator within the landscape over time. The research target is the optimal design of the telescopic coupling, the maintenance of the preload, the rotational decoupling, the pairs of sleeves, the pegs and the bushes of the jack-up lifting system. All the components of the wind tower have been preliminarily analysed through finite element method stress computational analysis. The prototype was installed in Caltanissetta, Italy, and successfully tested.
 
By A. Pantano, T. Tucciarelli, N. Montinaro, A. Mancino, M. Sinagra, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy

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Wind Farm Computational Fluid Dynamics Numerical Modelling

du fig 1Novel Approach for Modelling Wake Interaction Using Reduced Computational Resources
The layout of a wind farm affects not only the total output power but also the lifetime of the wind turbine components. This work is intended to establish a computational framework with which to investigate wind farm layout. At first, a wind turbine numerical model based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was validated using wind tunnel experimental data from the literature for the wake velocity flow field (MEXICO Experiment). The physical domain of the validated model was adapted and extended to include the far-wake modelling. The numerical approach implemented allowed efficient model wake interaction effects between rows in a wind farm with reduced computational costs. The capability of the proposed CFD model was shown to be consistent when compared with field data and kinematic model results, presenting similar ranges of wake deficit. The model is ready for engineering applications related to wind farm modelling, considering wake interaction effects between wind turbine rows.
 
By Rafael Valotta Rodrigues and Corinne Lengsfeld, University of Denver, USA

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Borealis Wind Ice Protection System

Borealis Figure 1Field Validation of a Hot-Air De-icing Retrofit
Wind turbine blade icing affects 65% of wind farms worldwide. Icing results in a reduction of power production, safety hazards for site workers and the public, and the potential for increased wear and tear on turbine components. Borealis Wind has created an after-market system which can remove and prevent ice accumulation on turbine blades. Borealis has designed an internal heating system which can be installed up-tower without the use of rope-access technicians or cranes within one week and without interrupting the night-time production of the turbine. The Borealis ice protection system circulates hot air inside the blade, targeting critical locations like the leading edge and end third.
 
By Daniela Roeper and Dylan Baxter, Borealis Wind, Canada

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